Everything that is young does not appear young and everything that is old does not appear old. Age therefore cannot be reliably determined by appearance. A proper frame of reference is necessary upon which to determine age.
Evidence for God — Youth
III. Evidence of God through age of the universe — Youth
Evidence for a young cosmos denies the excessive ages demanded for random evolutionary processes. Each piece of evidence stands independently: it only takes one to prove the earth is young.
A. Evidence from space
1. The shrinking sun limits the earth-sun relationship to less than "billions of years." The sun is losing both mass and diameter. Changing the mass would upset the fine gravitational balance that keeps the earth at just the right distance for life to survive. (1, p. 169; 2, p. 30; 4, pp. 56-63; 5, p. 26; 6, p. 43;)
2. The 0.5 inch (1.25 cm) layer of cosmic dust on the moon indicates the moon has not been accumulating dust for billions of years. (2, p. 26; 3, p. 22; 4, p. 15; 6, p. 35; 7; 9, p. 25)
3. The existence of short-period comets indicates the universe is less than billions of years old. (2, p. 31; 3, p. 27; 4, p. 35; 6, p. 37; 7)
4. Fossil meteorites are very rare in layers other than the top layers of the earth. This indicates that the layers were not exposed for millions of years as is currently being taught in school textbooks. (4, p. 26)
5. The moon is receding a few inches each year. Billions of years ago the moon would have been so close that the tides would have been much higher, eroding away the continents. (3, p. 25; 6, p. 43; 7)
6. The moon contains considerable quantities of U-236 and Th-230, both short-lived isotopes that would have been long gone if the moon were billions of years old. (8, p. 177; see also 4, p. 51, for information on rock "flow")
7. The existence of great quantities of space dust, which by the Pointing-Robertson effect would have been vacuumed out of our solar system in a few thousand years, indicates the solar system is young. (3, p. 29; 6, p.44)
8. At the rate many star clusters are expanding, they could not have been traveling for billions of years. (3, p. 29; 4, pp. 30 and 59; 6, p. 44)
9. Saturns rings are still unstable, indicating they are not billions of years old. (4, p. 45)
10. Jupiter and Saturn are cooling off rather rapidly. They are losing heat twice as fast as they gain it from the sun. (5, p. 26; 4, p. 43;)
11. Jupiters moon, Io, is losing matter to Jupiter. (4, p. 3) )
B. Evidence from earth
1. The decaying magnetic field limits earths age to less than billions. (1, p. 157; 2, p. 27; 3, p. 20; 5, p. 23; 6, p. 42; 9, p. 25; 10, p. 38)
2. The volume of lava on earth divided by its rate of efflux gives a number of only a few million years, not billions. I believe that during the Flood, while "the fountains of the deep were broken up," most of the earths lava was deposited rapidly. (1, p. 156)
3. Dividing the amount of various minerals in the ocean by their influx rate indicates only a few thousand years of accumulation. (1, p. 153; 5, p. 24; 6, p. 42)
4. The amount of Helium 4 in the atmosphere, divided by the formation rate on earth, gives only 175,000 years. (God may have created the earth with some helium which would reduce the age more.) (1, p. 151; 6, p. 42; 9, p. 25)
5. The erosion rate of the continents is such that they would erode to sea level in less than 14,000,000 years, destroying all old fossils. (2, p. 31; 6, p 38; American Science Vol 56 p 356-374)
6. Topsoil formation rates indicate only a few thousand years of formation. (6, p. 38)
7. Niagara Falls erosion rate (four to five feet per year) indicates an age of less than 10,000 years. Don't forget Noah's Flood could have eroded half of the seven-mile-long Niagara River gorge in a few hours as the flood waters raced through the soft sediments.) (6, p. 39; 7)
8. The rock encasing oil deposits could not withstand the pressure for more than a few thousand years. (2, p. 32; 3, p. 24; 5, p. 24; 6, p. 37; 7)
9. The size of the Mississippi River delta, divided by the rate mud is being deposited, gives an age of less than 30,000 years. (The Flood in Noah's day could have washed out 80% of the mud there in a few hours or days, so 4400 years is a reasonable age for the delta.) (3, p. 23; 6, p. 38; 7)
10. The slowing spin of the earth limits its age to less than the "billions of years" called for by the theory of evolution. (3, p. 25; 7)
11. A relatively small amount of sediment is now on the ocean floor, indicating only a few thousand years of accumulation. (1, p. 155; 6, p. 28; 7)
12. The largest stalactites and flowstone formations in the world could have easily formed in about 4400 years. (5, p. 27; 6, p. 39; 7)
13. The Sahara desert is expanding. It easily could have been formed in a few thousand years. See any earth science textbook.
14. The oceans are getting saltier. If they were billions of years old, they would be much saltier than they are now. (7; 9, p. 26; 10, p. 37)
15. Ice cores at the south pole and Greenland have a maximum depth of 10-14,000 feet. The aircraft that crash-landed in Greenland in 1942 and excavated in 1990 were under 263 feet of ice after only 48 years. This indicates all of the ice could have accumulated in 4400 years.(7)
C. Evidence from biology
1. The current population of earth (5.5 billion souls) could easily be generated from eight people (survivors of the Flood) in less than 4000 years. (1, p. 167; 3, p. 27; 6, p. 41; 7)
2. The oldest living coral reef is less than 4200 years old. (6, p. 39; 7)
3. The oldest living tree in the world is about 4300 years old. (6, p. 40; 7)
4. The genetic load in man is increasing*. Geneticists have cataloged nearly 1300 genetic disorders in the human race. [*Note entropy in action - proceeding from perfection to ruin]
1. Morris, Henry M. Scientific Creationism. El Cajon, Calif.: Master Books, April 1985.
2. McLean, G. S.; McLean, Larry; Oakland, Roger. The Bible Key to Understanding the Early Earth. Oklahoma City, Okla.: Southwest Radio Church, 1987.
3. Huse, Scott M. The Collapse of Evolution. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker Book House, 1983.
4. Ackerman, Paul D. Its a Young World After All. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker Book House, 1986.
5. Blick, Edward F. A Scientific Analysis of Genesis. Oklahoma City, Okla.: Hearthstone Publ. Ltd., 1991.
6. Petersen, Dennis R. Unlocking the Mysteries of Creation. South Lake Tahoe, Calif.: Christian Equippers International, 1987.
7. Hovind, Kent E. Creation Seminar, Parts 1-7 (most items referenced onscreen available from Creation Science Evangelism, 29 Cummings Road, Pensacola, Fla. 32503).
8. Wysong, R. L. The Creation-Evolution Controversy. Midland, Mich.: Inquiry Press, 1976.
9. Baker, Sylvia. Bone of Contention. Creation Science Foundation Ltd., Sunnybank, Queensland 4109 Australia: 1990.
10. Moore, John N. Questions and Answers on Creation-Evolution. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker Book House, 1977.
11. Brown, Walt. In the Beginning - available from CSE
D. Evidence from History
1. The oldest known historical records are less than 6000 years old. (1, p. 160)
2. Many ancient cultures have stories of an original creation in the recent past and a worldwide Flood. Nearly 300 of these Flood legends are now known.
3. Biblical dates add up to about 6000 years.
4. Sixteen Biblical references assert a known beginning.
a. In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. (Gen. 1:1)
b. For in six days the Lord made heaven and the earth, the sea, and all that in them is and rested the seventh day. (Exo. 20:11)
c. Have ye not known? have ye not heard? hath it not been told you from the beginning? Have ye not understood from the foundations of the earth? (Isa. 40:21)
d. By the word of the Lord the heavens were made;... For he spake, and it was done; he commanded, and it stood fast. (Psa. 33:6, 9)
e. Who hath wrought and done it, calling the generations from the beginning? I the Lord am he. (Isa. 41:4)
f. Have ye not read, that he which made them at the beginning made them male and female? (Mat. 19:4)
g. Moses because of the hardness of your hearts permitted you to put away your wives: but from the beginning it was not so. (Mat. 19:8)
h. For then shall be great tribulation, such as was not since the beginning of the world to this time. (Mat. 24:21)
i. But from the beginning of the creation God made them male and female. (Mark 10:6)
j. For in those days shall be affliction, such as was not from the beginning of the creation which God created to this time. (Mark 13:19)
k. In the beginning was the Word and the Word was with God and the Word was God. (John. 1:1)
l. For the invisible things of him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made. (Rom. 1:20)
m. And, Thou, Lord, in the beginning hast laid the foundation of the earth. (Heb. 1:10)
n. The works were finished from the foundation of the world. For God did rest the seventh day from all his works. (Heb. 4:3, 4)
o. Since the fathers fell asleep, all things continue as they were from the beginning of the creation. (2 Pet. 3:4)
p. He that committeth sin is of the devil; for the devil sinneth from the beginning. (1 John 3:8)