Jonathan is introduced to us in 1 Samuel chapter 14 as a leader, warrior and one who trusts in God. Chapter 14 shows us his fearless qualities. Then after the Lord inspired him to engage the Philistines in battle God routed them through Israel joining in battle. God responded to his faith with a small squirmish of victory that swells into a large victory through God's use of an earthquake in vs 15. Jonathan speaks with confidence in God to enable him to succeed and took no special credit for his part in routing the Philistines.
Later that day God revealed to Jonathan God's perspective of Saul and his reign. "Then said Jonathan, My father hath troubled the land: see, I pray you, how mine eyes have been enlightened, because I tasted a little of this honey." (1 Sam 14:29) Even though Saul had made a foolish command not to eat that day (vs 28) he thought to carry out his directive against his own son Jonathan (vs 39), whom the Lord enlightened by eating some honeycomb. Yet under God's hand the people rescued Jonathan: "And the people said unto Saul, Shall Jonathan die, who hath wrought this great salvation in Israel? God forbid: as the Lord liveth, there shall not one hair of his head fall to the ground; for he hath wrought with God this day. So the people rescued Jonathan, that he died not." (1 Sam 14:45)
From the moment they met, Jonathan loved David with a deep and earnest love in spite of David's election by God to become the next king. He showed to David mercy in helping to protect him from Saul's evil hatred and relentless pursuit. He took time to solicit Saul on David's behalf and to covenant with David to protect and defend him. David pledged upon oath to bless, honor and care for Jonathan and his family in return. Their relationship was deep abiding friendship in the face of adversity and without regard to which of them had privilege or success.
Now I wonder, did all of David's promise to Jonathan (1 Sam 20:14-17, 42) end with his favor, protection and care for Mephibosheth and his family, and the restoration of their property and land? (2 Sam 9ch; 21:7) "And David saw that Saul was come out to seek his life: and David was in the wilderness of Ziph in a wood. And Jonathan Saul's son arose, and went to David into the wood, and strengthened his hand in God. And he said unto him, Fear not: for the hand of Saul my father shall not find thee; and thou shalt be king over Israel, and I shall be next unto thee; and that also Saul my father knoweth. And they two made a covenant before the Lord: and David abode in the wood, and Jonathan went to his house." (1 Sam 23:15-18)
There is a man named Simon Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ (understood to be of the tribe of Benjamin (Jud 3:15; 7:16; 1 Chr 12:1-2) because he was left-handed in smiting Malchus right ear (John 18:10)), who has been chosen by the real "David" to hold the two keys of the kingdom of heaven. The first key was used at Pentecost to speak to the household of Israel and to invite them to come into salvation through Christ Jesusand many Israelites did. The second key was used at the home of Cornelius to invite those not of Israel, those "not my people" (Hosea 1:10; 2:23), to become His people through faith in Christ Jesus, the intended "David, King of Israel"and many Gentiles did. Moreover, Simon Peter has this promise from Jesus, "And I appoint unto you a kingdom, as my Father hath appointed unto me; That ye may eat and drink at my table in my kingdom, and sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel. And the Lord said, Simon, Simon, behold, Satan hath desired to have you, that he may sift you as wheat: But I have prayed for thee, that thy faith fail not: and when thou art converted, strengthen thy brethren." (Luke 22:29-32) If Simon Peter is of the lineage of Saul through Jonathan it would explain more fully why Jesus mentions his name twice and of His earnest prayer for Simon Peter to succeednot to fall in Saul's pathway to evil but to rise in Jonathan's pathway to righteousness. Did this "David," in the person of Christ Jesus, fulfill the promises of the first David to Jonathan (1 Sam 18:3; 20:8; 23:15-18; 2 Sam 21:7), to bless and honor him and his family to make this later "Jonathan," in the person of Simon Peter, sit with him by his throne? Indeed, I wonder!
Jonathan, whose name in Hebrew means "Jehovah has given," is a type of Christ in that he defended God's people against the "Philistine" idolatry and aggression. Jonathan was a protector of the covenant people. Jesus is the Savior of the covenant people. Jonathan went to battle and died on behalf of the people to keep their inheritance. Jesus goes before His people to bring them into the true inheritance. "For when we were yet without strength, in due time Christ died for the ungodly. For scarcely for a righteous man will one die: yet peradventure for a good man some would even dare to die. But God commendeth his love toward us, in that, while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us." (Rom 5:6-8) This was also true for Jonathan. He was a man of faithfulness, honor, integrity, valor and virtue. Jonathan's trust in God, warrior skill, deportment and subsequent conduct toward David, even though his father was king, showed Jonathan was in every measure a judge in Israel like unto Othniel, Shamgar, Gideon, Jair, Jepthah, Samson, Samuel and the others.
18 Comparisons Between Jonathan and Christ Jesus
loved his fellow Israelite
"And Jonathan smote the garrison of the Philistines that was in Geba, and the Philistines heard of it. And Saul blew the trumpet throughout all the land, saying, Let the Hebrews hear." (1 Sam 13:3); et cetera
"And it came to pass, when he had made an end of speaking unto Saul, that the soul of Jonathan was knit with the soul of David, and Jonathan loved him as his own soul. ... Then Jonathan and David made a covenant, because he loved him as his own soul." (1 Sam 18:1, 3) "But Jonathan Saul's son delighted much in David ... And Jonathan spake good of David unto Saul his father, and said unto him, Let not the king sin against his servant, against David; because he hath not sinned against thee, and because his works have been to thee-ward very good." (1 Sam 19:2, 4); "And as soon as the lad was gone, David arose out of a place toward the south, and fell on his face to the ground, and bowed himself three times: and they kissed one another, and wept one with another, until David exceeded. And Jonathan said to David, Go in peace, forasmuch as we have sworn both of us in the name of the Lord, saying, The Lord be between me and thee, and between my seed and thy seed for ever. And he arose and departed: and Jonathan went into the city." (1 Sam 20:41-42); "I am distressed for thee, my brother Jonathan: very pleasant hast thou been unto me: thy love to me was wonderful, passing the love of women." (2 Sam 1:26) (defended Israelites in battles until his death in battle against Philistines, See #9)
"Then Jesus beholding him loved him, and said unto him, One thing thou lackest: go thy way, sell whatsoever thou hast, and give to the poor, and thou shalt have treasure in heaven: and come, take up the cross, and follow me." (Mark 10:21); "I am the living bread which came down from heaven: if any man eat of this bread, he shall live for ever: and the bread that I will give is my flesh, which I will give for the life of the world." (John 6:51); "Now Jesus loved Martha, and her sister, and Lazarus." (John 11:5); "Now before the feast of the passover, when Jesus knew that his hour was come that he should depart out of this world unto the Father, having loved his own which were in the world, he loved them unto the end. ... Now there was leaning on Jesus' bosom one of his disciples, whom Jesus loved. ... A new commandment I give unto you, That ye love one another; as I have loved you, that ye also love one another." (John 13:1, 23, 34); "As the Father hath loved me, so have I loved you: continue ye in my love." (John 15:9); "And I have declared unto them thy name, and will declare it: that the love wherewith thou hast loved me may be in them, and I in them." (John 17:26); "When Jesus therefore saw his mother, and the disciple standing by, whom he loved, he saith unto his mother, Woman, behold thy son!" (John 19:26); "Greater love hath no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his friends. Ye are my friends, if ye do whatsoever I command you." (John 15:13-14); "And he took the cup, and gave thanks, and gave it to them, saying, Drink ye all of it; For this is my blood of the new testament, which is shed for many for the remission of sins." (Matt 26:27-28); "And walk in love, as Christ also hath loved us, and hath given himself for us an offering and a sacrifice to God for a sweetsmelling savour." (Eph 5:2); "And from Jesus Christ, who is the faithful witness, and the first begotten of the dead, and the prince of the kings of the earth. Unto him that loved us, and washed us from our sins in his own blood." (Rev 1:5)
served His earthly father well
"And he said unto him, God forbid; thou shalt not die: behold, my father will do nothing either great or small, but that he will shew it me: and why should my father hide this thing from me? it is not so." (1 Sam 20:2)
"And he went down with them, and came to Nazareth, and was subject unto them: but his mother kept all these sayings in her heart. And Jesus increased in wisdom and stature, and in favour with God and man." (Luke 2:51-52)
divested himself to serve God
"And Jonathan stripped himself of the robe that was upon him [rank and privilege], and gave it to David, and his garments [family status], even to his sword [military leadership], and to his bow [military prowess], and to his girdle [pledge of service to the king]." (1 Sam 18:4)
"He was in the world, and the world was made by him, and the world knew him not. He came unto his own, and his own received him not." (John 1:10-11); "Let this mind be in you, which was also in Christ Jesus: Who, being in the form of God, thought it not robbery to be equal with God: But made himself of no reputation, and took upon him the form of a servant, and was made in the likeness of men: And being found in fashion as a man, he humbled himself, and became obedient unto death, even the death of the cross." (Php 2:5-8); "And walk in love, as Christ also hath loved us, and hath given himself for us an offering and a sacrifice to God for a sweet smelling savour." (Eph 5:2); "By the which will we are sanctified through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all." (Heb 10:10); "Greater love hath no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his friends. Ye are my friends, if ye do whatsoever I command you." (John 15:13-14)
gave honest report to reconcile adversaries,
intercedes for another's well-being
"But Jonathan Saul's son delighted much in David: and Jonathan told David, saying, Saul my father seeketh to kill thee: now therefore, I pray thee, take heed to thyself until the morning, and abide in a secret place, and hide thyself: And I will go out and stand beside my father in the field where thou art, and I will commune with my father of thee; and what I see, that I will tell thee. And Jonathan spake good of David unto Saul his father, and said unto him, Let not the king sin against his servant, against David; because he hath not sinned against thee, and because his works have been to thee-ward very good: For he did put his life in his hand, and slew the Philistine, and the Lord wrought a great salvation for all Israel: thou sawest it, and didst rejoice: wherefore then wilt thou sin against innocent blood, to slay David without a cause? And Saul hearkened unto the voice of Jonathan: and Saul sware, As the Lord liveth, he shall not be slain. And Jonathan called David, and Jonathan shewed him all those things. And Jonathan brought David to Saul, and he was in his presence, as in times past." (1 Sam 19:2-7); "And Jonathan answered Saul his father, and said unto him, Wherefore shall he be slain? what hath he done?" (1 Sam 20:32)
"And the Lord said, Simon, Simon, behold, Satan hath desired to have you, that he may sift you as wheat: But I have prayed for thee, that thy faith fail not: and when thou art converted, strengthen thy brethren." (Luke 22:31-32); "For if, when we were enemies, we were reconciled to God by the death of his Son, much more, being reconciled, we shall be saved by his life." (Rom 5:10); "Who is he that condemneth? It is Christ that died, yea rather, that is risen again, who is even at the right hand of God, who also maketh intercession for us." (Rom 8:34); "Having predestinated us unto the adoption of children by Jesus Christ to himself, according to the good pleasure of his will, To the praise of the glory of his grace, wherein he hath made us accepted in the beloved. In whom we have redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of sins, according to the riches of his grace;" (Eph 1:5-7); "For he is our peace, who hath made both one, and hath broken down the middle wall of partition between us; Having abolished in his flesh the enmity, even the law of commandments contained in ordinances; for to make in himself of twain one new man, so making peace; And that he might reconcile both unto God in one body by the cross, having slain the enmity thereby: And came and preached peace to you which were afar off, and to them that were nigh." (Eph 2:14-17); "Seeing then that we have a great high priest, that is passed into the heavens, Jesus the Son of God, let us hold fast our profession. For we have not an high priest which cannot be touched with the feeling of our infirmities; but was in all points tempted like as we are, yet without sin. Let us therefore come boldly unto the throne of grace, that we may obtain mercy, and find grace to help in time of need." (Heb 4:14-16); "Wherefore he is able also to save them to the uttermost that come unto God by him, seeing he ever liveth to make intercession for them." (Heb 7:25)
bore man's hatred for another's well-being
"And Saul spake to Jonathan his son, and to all his servants, that they should kill David. But Jonathan Saul's son delighted much in David: and Jonathan told David, saying, Saul my father seeketh to kill thee: now therefore, I pray thee, take heed to thyself until the morning, and abide in a secret place, and hide thyself: And I will go out and stand beside my father in the field where thou art, and I will commune with my father of thee; and what I see, that I will tell thee. And Jonathan spake good of David unto Saul his father, and said unto him, Let not the king sin against his servant, against David; because he hath not sinned against thee, and because his works have been to thee-ward very good: For he did put his life in his hand, and slew the Philistine, and the Lord wrought a great salvation for all Israel: thou sawest it, and didst rejoice: wherefore then wilt thou sin against innocent blood, to slay David without a cause?" (1 Sam 19:1-5); "Then Saul's anger was kindled against Jonathan, and he said unto him, Thou son of the perverse rebellious woman, do not I know that thou hast chosen the son of Jesse to thine own confusion, and unto the confusion of thy mother's nakedness? For as long as the son of Jesse liveth upon the ground, thou shalt not be established, nor thy kingdom. Wherefore now send and fetch him unto me, for he shall surely die. And Jonathan answered Saul his father, and said unto him, Wherefore shall he be slain? what hath he done? And Saul cast a javelin at him to smite him: whereby Jonathan knew that it was determined of his father to slay David." (1 Sam 20:30-33)
"But this cometh to pass, that the word might be fulfilled that is written in their law, They hated me without a cause." (John 15:25); "He is despised and rejected of men; a man of sorrows, and acquainted with grief: and we hid as it were our faces from him; he was despised, and we esteemed him not. Surely he hath borne our griefs, and carried our sorrows: yet we did esteem him stricken, smitten of God, and afflicted. But he was wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised for our iniquities: the chastisement of our peace was upon him; and with his stripes we are healed." (Isa 53:3-5); [For many verses see: Messianic Prophecies
-Rejection and Trial]
"And David saw that Saul was come out to seek his life: and David was in the wilderness of Ziph in a wood. And Jonathan Saul's son arose, and went to David into the wood, and strengthened his hand in God. And he said unto him, Fear not: for the hand of Saul my father shall not find thee; and thou shalt be king over Israel, and I shall be next unto thee; and that also Saul my father knoweth. And they two made a covenant before the LORD: and David abode in the wood, and Jonathan went to his house." (1 Sam 23:15-18)
"But the Comforter, which is the Holy Ghost, whom the Father will send in my name, he shall teach you all things, and bring all things to your remembrance, whatsoever I have said unto you." (John 14:26); "For whatsoever things were written aforetime were written for our learning, that we through patience and comfort of the scriptures might have hope. Now the God of patience and consolation grant you to be likeminded one toward another according to Christ Jesus." (Romans 15:4-5); "Blessed be God, even the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of mercies, and the God of all comfort; Who comforteth us in all our tribulation, that we may be able to comfort them which are in any trouble, by the comfort wherewith we ourselves are comforted of God. For as the sufferings of Christ abound in us, so our consolation also aboundeth by Christ." (2 Cor 1:3-5); "Then we which are alive and remain shall be caught up together with them in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air: and so shall we ever be with the Lord. Wherefore comfort one another with these words." (1 Thes 4:17-18)
displayed exceptional courage
"Now it came to pass upon a day, that Jonathan the son of Saul said unto the young man that bare his armour, Come, and let us go over to the Philistines' garrison, that is on the other side. But he told not his father. ... Then said Jonathan, Behold, we will pass over unto these men, and we will discover ourselves unto them." (1 Sam 14:1, 8)
"And it came to pass, when the time was come that he should be received up, he stedfastly set his face to go to Jerusalem." (Luke 9:51); "Then asked he them again, Whom seek ye? And they said, Jesus of Nazareth. Jesus answered, I have told you that I am he: if therefore ye seek me, let these go their way." (John 18:7-8)
chosen (by God) as the scapegoat
"But Jonathan heard not when his father charged the people with the oath: wherefore he put forth the end of the rod that was in his hand, and dipped it in an honeycomb, and put his hand to his mouth; and his eyes were enlightened." (1 Sam 14:27); "And the people flew upon the spoil, and took sheep, and oxen, and calves, and slew them on the ground: and the people did eat them with the blood." (1 Sam 14:32); "Therefore Saul said unto the Lord God of Israel, Give a perfect lot. And Saul and Jonathan were taken: but the people escaped. And Saul said, Cast lots between me and Jonathan my son. And Jonathan was taken. Then Saul said to Jonathan, Tell me what thou hast done. And Jonathan told him, and said, I did but taste a little honey with the end of the rod that was in mine hand, and, lo, I must die. And Saul answered, God do so and more also: for thou shalt surely die, Jonathan." (1 Sam 14:42-44)
"Nor consider that it is expedient for us, that one man should die for the people, and that the whole nation perish not." (John 11:50); "Now Caiaphas was he, which gave counsel to the Jews, that it was expedient that one man should die for the people." (John 18:14); "Now the chief priests, and elders, and all the council, sought false witness against Jesus, to put him to death." (Matt 26:59); "And when they had mocked him, they took off the purple from him, and put his own clothes on him, and led him out to crucify him. ... And with him they crucify two thieves; the one on his right hand, and the other on his left." (Mark 15:20, 27)
died for and with the people,
wounded & died as a "transgressor"
"And the Philistines followed hard upon Saul and upon his sons; and the Philistines slew Jonathan, and Abinadab, and Melchishua, Saul's sons. ... So Saul died, and his three sons, and his armourbearer, and all his men, that same day together." (1 Sam 31:2, 6); "From the blood of the slain, from the fat of the mighty, the bow of Jonathan turned not back, and the sword of Saul returned not empty." (2 Sam 1:22)
"Then released he Barabbas unto them: and when he had scourged Jesus, he delivered him to be crucified." (Matt 27:26); "Nor consider that it is expedient for us, that one man should die for the people, and that the whole nation perish not." (John 11:50; 18:14); "Even as the Son of man came not to be ministered unto, but to minister, and to give his life a ransom for many." (Matt 20:28; Mark 10:45); "Who gave himself a ransom for all, to be testified in due time." (1 Tim 2:6); "Who needeth not daily, as those high priests, to offer up sacrifice, first for his own sins, and then for the people's: for this he did once, when he offered up himself." (Heb 7:27)
"For I say unto you, that this that is written must yet be accomplished in me, And he was reckoned among the transgressors: for the things concerning me have an end." (Luke 22:37); "And there were also two other, malefactors, led with him to be put to death. And when they were come to the place, which is called Calvary, there they crucified him, and the malefactors, one on the right hand, and the other on the left." (Luke 23:32-33);
buried by friend(s)
"And David went and took the bones of Saul and the bones of Jonathan his son from the men of Jabeshgilead, which had stolen them from the street of Bethshan, where the Philistines had hanged them, when the Philistines had slain Saul in Gilboa: And he brought up from thence the bones of Saul and the bones of Jonathan his son; and they gathered the bones of them that were hanged. And the bones of Saul and Jonathan his son buried they in the country of Benjamin in Zelah, in the sepulchre of Kish his father: and they performed all that the king commanded. And after that God was intreated for the land." (2 Sam 21:10-14)
"When the even was come, there came a rich man of Arimathaea, named Joseph, who also himself was Jesus' disciple: He went to Pilate, and begged the body of Jesus. Then Pilate commanded the body to be delivered. And when Joseph had taken the body, he wrapped it in a clean linen cloth, And laid it in his own new tomb, which he had hewn out in the rock: and he rolled a great stone to the door of the sepulchre, and departed. And there was Mary Magdalene, and the other Mary, sitting over against the sepulchre." (Matt 27:57-61); "Joseph of Arimathaea, an honourable counsellor, which also waited for the kingdom of God, came, and went in boldly unto Pilate, and craved the body of Jesus. And Pilate marvelled if he were already dead: and calling unto him the centurion, he asked him whether he had been any while dead. And when he knew it of the centurion, he gave the body to Joseph. And he bought fine linen, and took him down, and wrapped him in the linen, and laid him in a sepulchre which was hewn out of a rock, and rolled a stone unto the door of the sepulchre. And Mary Magdalene and Mary the mother of Joses beheld where he was laid." (Mark 15:43-47); "And after this Joseph of Arimathaea, being a disciple of Jesus, but secretly for fear of the Jews, besought Pilate that he might take away the body of Jesus: and Pilate gave him leave. He came therefore, and took the body of Jesus. And there came also Nicodemus, which at the first came to Jesus by night, and brought a mixture of myrrh and aloes, about an hundred pound weight. Then took they the body of Jesus, and wound it in linen clothes with the spices, as the manner of the Jews is to bury. Now in the place where he was crucified there was a garden; and in the garden a new sepulchre, wherein was never man yet laid. There laid they Jesus therefore because of the Jews' preparation day; for the sepulchre was nigh at hand." (John 19:38-42)
"And the people said unto Saul, Shall Jonathan die, who hath wrought this great salvation in Israel?" (1 Sam 14:45a)
"How shall we escape, if we neglect so great salvation." (Heb 2:3)
'go in peace'
"And Jonathan said to David, Go in peace, forasmuch as we have sworn both of us in the name of the Lord, saying, The Lord be between me and thee, and between my seed and thy seed for ever. And he arose and departed: and Jonathan went into the city." (1 Sam 20:42)
"And he said to the woman, Thy faith hath saved thee; go in peace." (Luke 7:50); "And he said unto her, Daughter, be of good comfort: thy faith hath made thee whole; go in peace." (Luke 8:48); "Peace I leave with you, my peace I give unto you: not as the world giveth, give I unto you. Let not your heart be troubled, neither let it be afraid." (John 14:27)
""And Jonathan stripped himself of the robe that was upon him, and gave it to David, and his garments, even to his sword, and to his bow, and to his girdle." (1 Sam 18:4)
"And they stripped him, and put on him a scarlet robe." (Matt 27:28)
"Whatsoever thy soul desireth, I will even do it for thee." (1 Sam 20:4)
"If ye abide in me, and my words abide in you, ye shall ask what ye will, and it shall be done unto you." (John 15:7)
father 'reveals everything'
My father will do nothing, great or small, but that he will shew it me." (1 Sam 20:2)
"All things are delivered unto me of my Father: and no man knoweth the Son, but the Father; neither knoweth any man the Father, save the Son, and he to whomsoever the Son will reveal him." (Matt 11:27); "All things are delivered to me of my Father: and no man knoweth who the Son is, but the Father; and who the Father is, but the Son, and he to whom the Son will reveal him." (Luke 10:22); "Henceforth I call you not servants; for the servant knoweth not what his lord doeth: but I have called you friends; for all things that I have heard of my Father I have made known unto you." (John 15:15)
The Hebrew word used to describe Jonathan's death in 2 Sam 1:19, 22, 25 means 'to slay by piercing to death.'
"But one of the soldiers with a spear pierced his side, and forthwith came there out blood and water. ... And again another scripture saith, They shall look on him whom they pierced." (John 19:34, 37); "Behold, he cometh with clouds; and every eye shall see him, and they also which pierced him: and all kindreds of the earth shall wail because of him. Even so, Amen." (Rev 1:7)
"Then said he unto all Israel, Be ye on one side, and I and Jonathan my son will be on the other side. And the people said unto Saul, Do what seemeth good unto thee. Therefore Saul said unto the Lord God of Israel, Give a perfect lot. And Saul and Jonathan were taken: but the people escaped. And Saul said, Cast lots between me and Jonathan my son. And Jonathan was taken." (1 Sam 14:40-42)
"And they crucified him, and parted his garments, casting lots: that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet, They parted my garments among them, and upon my vesture did they cast lots." (Matt 27:35); "And when they had crucified him, they parted his garments, casting lots upon them, what every man should take." (Mark 15:24); "Then said Jesus, Father, forgive them; for they know not what they do. And they parted his raiment, and cast lots." (Luke 23:34); "Then the soldiers, when they had crucified Jesus, took his garments, and made four parts, to every soldier a part; and also his coat: now the coat was without seam, woven from the top throughout. They said therefore among themselves, Let us not rend it, but cast lots for it, whose it shall be: that the scripture might be fulfilled, which saith, They parted my raiment among them, and for my vesture they did cast lots. These things therefore the soldiers did." (John 19:23-24)
slain upon the high places
"And David lamented with this lamentation over Saul and over Jonathan his son: (Also he bade them teach the children of Judah the use of the bow: behold, it is written in the book of Jasher.) The beauty of Israel is slain upon thy high places: how are the mighty fallen!" (2 Sam 1:17-19)
"And as Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so must the Son of man be lifted up:" (John 3:14); "And I, if I be lifted up from the earth, will draw all men unto me." (John 12:32); "And he bearing his cross went forth into a place called the place of a skull, which is called in the Hebrew Golgotha." (John 19:17); "Him, being delivered by the determinate counsel and foreknowledge of God, ye have taken, and by wicked hands have crucified and slain: Whom God hath raised up, having loosed the pains of death: because it was not possible that he should be holden of it." (Acts 2:23-24)