Great Scientists who held a Biblical worldview

Brian Kuehmichel
July 22, 2004, Updated 11/10/2013

Historical Overview

Roger Bacon (1220-1292) (Catholic) — established observation & experimenting (scientific method) as the true basis of science

Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) (Catholic) — cause & effect relationships

Johann Gutenberg (c.1397-c.1468) (Catholic) — invented typography & printing press to distribute knowledge

Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) (Catholic) — believed knowledge about the world must be based on scientific evidence from experiments, Hydraulics, Anatomy

Conrad Gessner (1516-1565) (Protestant) — was a Swiss naturalist, doctor of medicine, professor for physics, natural philsophy, and ethics, and bibliographer (considered the father of bibliography). His five-volume Historiae animalium (1551-1558) is considered the beginning of modern zoology.

John Napier (1550-1617) (Protestant) — inventor of logarithms, decimal notation for fractions and the concept of negative numbers

Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) (Lutheran) — discovered the laws of planetary motion (Celestial Mechanics), Astronomy

Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) (Catholic) — Hydrostatics, Fluid Pressure, probability and number theory, geometry, religious philosopher and field of Christian apologetics.

Robert Boyle (1627-1691) (Protestant) — Chemistry, Elements, Gas Volume & Pressure, sound, Scientific Method

John Ray (1627-1691) (Protestant) — Naturalist

John Ray (1627-1705) (Calvinist) — Botany, Zoology, Entomology, pioneered work on the classification of plants and animals

Isaac Newton (1642-1727) (born Anglican, converted to Arianism) — Calculus (co-invented by Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz), Laws of Gravity & Motion

John Woodward (1665-1728) — Geology, Paleontology

Leonhard Euler (1707-1783) (Calvinist) — dozens of theorems, proofs, algorithms, constants and laws, theory of optics, planetary motion, electricity, magnetism, and general mechanics

Georges Cuvier (1769-1832) — Systematic Biology Classification, Comparative Anatomy, Vertebrate Paleontology

Andre Marie Ampere (1775-1836) — (Catholic) — mathematics, chemistry, physics, electrodynamics

Michael Faraday (1791-1867) (Sandemanian) — pioneer of scientific discovery, Electromagnetics, Field Theory, invented the Bunsen burner

Charles Babbage (1791-1871) — Actuarial Tables, Computer Science, Father of hydrostatics
He conceived of and made an analytical machine which automatically calculated and printed mathematical tables, and logarithm tables. He invented the speedometer, the cowcatcher used on the front of locomotives, and an early ophthalmoscope-the instrument used by doctors to see inside your eye. He also invented hundreds of tools and mechanical devices for use in factories. Some of his other inventions had applications in mining, architecture and bridge construction.

Christian Friedrich Schonbein (1799-1868) — Chemistry, discovered ozone, developed guncotton as a propellant in firearms

Matthew Fontaine Maury (1806-1873) — an American astronomer, historian, oceanographer, meteorologist, cartographer, author, geologist, and educator. (nicknamed Pathfinder of the Seas and Father of modern Oceanography and Naval Meteorology)

Louis Agassiz (1807-1873) — Ichthyology, Father of glacial science and a pioneer of paleontology

James Prescott Joule (1818-1889) (Catholic) — Physicist, reversible Thermodynamics of work, energy and heat, and proof of the law of conservation of energy

Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) (Catholic) — Genetics

Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) (Catholic) — Bacteriology, Germs and Disease, Law of Biogenesis

Lord Kelvin (1824-1907) (William Thomson) — defining the concept of energy and formalizing the laws of thermodynamics, Cryology, Energetics

Bernhard Riemann (1826-1866) (Protestant) — mathematician, non-Euclidean geometry, definite integral, etc.

James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879) (Baptist faith) — summation of all electromagnetic phenomena in four differential equations, appropriately named Maxwell’s Equations

Antoine Henri Becquerel (1852-1908) (Catholic) — magnetic field strength, chemistry, phosphorescence, spectroscopy, and the absorption of light, discovered radioactivity in uranium

William Ramsay (1852-1916) — Isotopic Chemistry, Element transmutation, discovery of argon, helium, neon, krypton, and xenon

Werhner Von Braun (3/23/1912-6/16/1977) — rocket technology, aerospace engineer and space architect, (responsible for manufacturing and launching the first American artificial earth satellite)

C. Everett Koop (10/14/1916-2/25/2013) — Vice Admiral C. Everett Koop, USPHS Surgeon General of the United States, 13th Surgeon General of the United States, In office 1/21/1982—10/1/1989, First Editor-in-Chief of The Journal of Pediatric Surgery who developed and perfected numerous surgical techniques for congenital defects. During the course of his long career, for example, he performed some seventeen thousand inguinal hernia repairs and over seven thousand orchidopexies (surgery for correcting undescended testicle). He developed new procedures, such as the colon interposition graft for correcting esophageal atresia (congenital lack of continuity of the esophagus) or ventriculoperitoneal shunts for treatment of hydrocephalus (accumulation of excessive cerebral spinal fluid in and around the brain causing neurological problems). He also tackled many difficult cases ranging from childhood cancer to surgeries done on conjoined twins, of which he and his colleagues operated upon ten pairs during his 35-year tenure. In all he operated on many children and babies with congenital defects 'incompatible with life but amenable to surgical correction'., Journal of Creation 25(3) 2011, pgs 63-67

Henry Madison Morris, Jr. (10/6/1918-2/25/2006) (PhD, hydraulic engineering, Rice University) (Baptist) was an American young earth creationist, Christian apologist, and engineer. Morris co-authored an advanced text on engineering hydraulics with J.M. Wiggert that was used "in dozens of universities worldwide" and with nine others founded the Creation Research Society (CRS), co-founded the Christian Heritage College in Santee, California which led to formation of the Institute for Creation Research (ICR). Henry M. Morris, Jr.

Colonel James B. Irwin (3/17/1930-8/8/1991) — American astronaut, scientist, lunar explorer, Lunar Module pilot for Apollo 15, the fourth human lunar landing, the eighth person to walk on the Moon. In the United States Air Force he received an Air Force Distinguished Service Medal and two Air Force Commendation Medals and also received an Outstanding Unit Citation while with the 4750th Training Wing. He was also a recipient of the United Nations Peace Medal and the Haley Astronautics Award from the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Between July 26 and August 7, 1971, as the Apollo 15 Lunar Module Pilot (LMP), Irwin logged 295 hours and 11 minutes in space. His extra-vehicular activity (EVA) on the Moon's surface amounted to 18 hours and 30 minutes of the mission time where seismic activity was charted, high-energy solar particles were collected, numerous lunar core and rock samples were obtained, including the Genesis Rock and named numerous geological formations.

James M. Tour (1959- present) (B.S., chemistry from Syracuse University and Ph.D. in synthetic organic chemistry and organometallic chemistry from Purdue University, with post-doctoral work from University of Wisconsin (1986–1987) and Stanford University (1987–1988). He serves at Rice University.) (Baptist) was an American young earth creationist, "James M. Tour, a synthetic organic chemist, received his Bachelor of Science degree in chemistry from Syracuse University, his Ph.D. in synthetic organic and organometallic chemistry from Purdue University, and postdoctoral training in synthetic organic chemistry at the University of Wisconsin and Stanford University. After spending 11 years on the faculty of the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry at the University of South Carolina, he joined the Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology at Rice University in 1999 where he is presently the T. T. and W. F. Chao Professor of Chemistry, Professor of Computer Science, and Professor of Materials Science and NanoEngineering." James M. Tour He was a co-signer of the statement, "We are skeptical of claims for the ability of random mutation and natural selection to account for the complexity of life. Careful examination of the evidence for Darwinian theory should be encouraged." Signatories of 'A Scientific Dissent From Darwinism'.

"Professor Tour credits his success to his Christian faith. Colleagues say that Tour, a Messianic Jew who attends West University Baptist Church, does not push his faith on others but will freely discuss it if asked. When he speaks about his Christianity, Tour becomes emotive: “I believe, fundamentally, that God creates us all.” Although fully committed to his scientific work, “he is passionate about God. In a world that increasingly associates scientists with atheism or agnosticism, Tour derives his inspiration from deep faith." James Tour—leading scientist and Darwin skeptic

List of professed Christians primarily known for their contributions to the sciences:

Nicholas Oresme (1323-1382) (Catholic) — Philosopher, economist, mathematician, and physicist

Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) (Catholic Priest) — Astronomy, plane and spherical trigonometry

Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) (Catholic) — astronomer, philosopher, and physicist

Franz De le Boe (AKA Francois Du Bois) (1614-1672) — German physician, anatomist and chemist; based diagnoses and treatment of patients on blood acids, alkali and salts

Christiaan Huygens (1629-1695) (Calvinist (assumed)) — Physics, Mathematics, Optics

Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723) (Dutch Reformed) — improvement of the microscope and contributions towards the establishment of cell biology

Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz (1646-1716) (Lutheran) — Binary arithmetic essential to modern computational machines, Calculus (co-invented by Sir Isaac Newton)

Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778) (Lutheran background) — Botany and Zoology, Classification system for plants and animals

Georges Buffon (1707-1788) (Catholic) — Biology

Charles Augustin de Coulomb (1736-1806) (Catholic) — mechanics (friction, viscosity), electricity, magnetism

Luigi Galvani (1737-1798) (Catholic) — discovered biological electricity

Antoine Lavoisier (1743-1794) (Catholic) — chemistry, finance, biology, and economics, law of conservation of matter, recognized and named oxygen, helped reform chemical nomenclature

John Dalton (1766-1844) (Quaker) — chemist and physicist who formulated atomic theory, the law of partial pressures (aka Law of multiple proportions), Dalton's law, color blindness

David Brewster (1781-1868) (Scottish Established Church) — gave optics several of its laws studying the diffraction of light

Joseph Lister (1786-1869) (Quaker) — Antiseptic surgery techniques

Charles Darwin (1809-1882) (Anglican) — Biology, theory of evolution

Heinrich Rudolf Hertz (1857-1894) (Christian) physicist, electromagnetic radiation of radio waves.

Wright brothers: Wilbur (1867-1912), Orville (1871-1948) (Brethren) — self-propelled controlled airflight

Guglielmo Marconi (1874-1937) (born Catholic, converted to Anglicanism) — first practical wireless telegraphy system

Alexander Fleming (1881-1955) (Catholic) — developed penicillin

William Robin Thompson (1887-1972) (Catholic) — entomologist

William Grosvenor Pollard (1911–1989) (Episcopal priest) — professor of physics, championed the organization of the Oak Ridge Institute of Nuclear Studies (ORINS), research on a gaseous diffusion extraction method of U-235 from common uranium

Werner Arber (1929 to present) (Christian) — Professor for Molecular Genetics, microbiologist, geneticist, co-discoveror of restriction endonucleases [precursor to recombinant DNA technology]

John Charlton Polkinghorne (1930-2021) (theologian, and Anglican priest) — professorship in mathematical physics, theoretical physicist about elementary particles

Sir John Houghton (1931-2020) (Presbyterian) — professor in atmospheric physics

William Daniel Phillips (1948 to present) (American Methodist) — professor of physics, contributions to laser cooling to slow the movement of gaseous atoms in order to better study them


For expanded information see: OR Catalog of the Scientific Community

The Foundation of Modern Science is The Biblical Worldview

Famous Scientists

Scientific units named after people

Alphabetical Collection of Scientific Inventions & Discoveries OR

Major Scientific & Medical Discoveries, Inventions & Events ~ 1650-1800

Bible-Believing Scientists Of The Past

Christian scientists affecting science

Christian Influences In The Sciences &

Great Scientists Who Were Also Creationists

The World's Greatest Creation Scientists - From Y1K to Y2K

Creation scientists and other biographies of interest

Sensible Science

Not All Scientists Believe in Evolution and - lists more scientists